Article in Italian. Abstract in English :
The paper makes a brief survey of the condition of labour in contemporary capitalism. It defines the novelties of the current phase. The precarisation or casualization of work is going on in a context of ‘centralization without concentration’ and of an original ‘financial keynesianism’. The control over labour is guaranteed both by ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ processes, including the stagnationist tendency of monopoly capitalism, the anti-stagnationist active economic policies, the new firm governance, and the real subsumption of labour finance. This new reality challenges the conventional reading of both Marx and Keynes. The paper also carefully distinguishes the ‘neoliberal’ position (favouring the deregulation of labour and promoting the attack against the Welfare, but also practising pro-monopoly and deficit spending policies) versus the social-liberal one (favouring liberalization of goods and service markets, but also claiming the necessity of flexibility with a social safety net, plus some mild State re-regulation). The only alternative to social fragmentation lies in re-unification from below, together with interventionist economic policies from above, which are both based on the recognition of the central role of labour in capitalist valorization. This is not an industrialist and productivist perspective, as it is sometimes asserted, but the way to construct a movement and a society based on the equal dignity of all against the overwhelming and oppressive power of the ‘economic’ in society.